Enrollment for Latinx undergraduates has increased. Enrollment for Latinx undergraduate students has increased by over 8% between 2013 and 2019. With the declines in enrollment for white and African American students, Latinx students are increasing as a proportion of undergraduate enrollment.
Latinx students are more likely to be placed in developmental education. Public universities place 12% of Latinx freshman in developmental education, while placing only 5% of white students. For community colleges the rates are 58% of Latinx and 40% of whites. And the gaps continue in credits gained in the first semester. For students placed in developmental math, as one example, Latinx students accumulated only 8.7 credits, while white students accumulated 10.6 on average in the first semester, compared to a needed 12-15 credit hours to stay on track for timely graduation.
Latinx students have less access to dual credit but proportional access to AP coursework in high school. Latinx students were 24% of the high school graduates, but only 18% of those enrolled in dual credit courses were Latinx high school seniors. However, of high school seniors enrolled in AP, 25% were Latinx.
Gaps persist in public university retention and advancement of Latinx freshmen. Public universities retain 85% of white full-time freshmen but only 76% of their Latinx peers. Similarly, nearly 70% of white freshmen will be advanced, while only 53% of Latinx will.
However, public universities retain Latinx and white transfer students at nearly the same rates. Over 83% of Latinx transfer students are retained, while 85% of white transfer students are. Gaps in advancement rates are evident, with just over 64% of Latinx transfer students advancing to the next class status, while 70% of white students do.
Based on 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019 IPEDS Graduation Rates at 150% of Normal Time for students who first enrolled full time. The percent of full-time undergraduate students varies by sector: 88.4% for public universities; 35.4% for community clleges; 91.3% for NFP private colleges; and 41.1% for for-profit private colleges.
Gaps exist in non-profit private university retention and advancement rates. Non-profit private institutions retained 82% of white and 78% of Latinx freshmen, while advancing 74% of white and 65% of Latinx freshmen. For transfer students, these institutions retained 77% of white students and 76% of Latinx students. Private institutions advanced 65% of white transfer students and 61% of Latinx students.
Institution completion gaps persist over time. As the charts illustrate, there are gaps in the rates at which institutions complete white and Latinx freshmen. These gaps have persisted over time.